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How Do I Evaluate Websites? Oh, the CRAAP Test!
If you find a website that you think might be useful for your assignment, use this list as an evaluation tool.
- When was this article or page published? Has it been updated since then?
- Has the author written more recent papers on the same subject?
- Does this article contain statistics or data? Are more current figures available elsewhere?
- Does the information in this article answer your research question?
- Does the type of article fit the requirements of your assignment?
- Is this article appropriate for college-level research?
- Who wrote the article?
- Is the author an expert in the field? What credentials does he or she have to suggest that?
- Can you find any other resources that cite this article?
- Does the information in the article fit with what you already know about the subject?
- Does the article contain references or citations to other resources?
- Does the article seem to be objective, or is there any obvious bias or prejudice?
- Does the author use emotional language?
- Is the author writing on behalf of any company or political entity?
The CRAAP test was originally created by librarians at Meriam Library at California State University, Chico.
Types of Periodicals
||Articles are written by authorities in the field
||Articles are usually written by professional writers or journalists
||Authors cite their sources in endnotes, footnotes, or bibliographies
||There are rarely bibliographies
||Aimed at scholarly readers (researchers, professors, or students)
||Aimed at general population
||Often published by academic or association presses
||Published by commercial (for profit) presses
||Contains few to no advertisements
||Contain numerous advertisements
||Most articles are reviewed by an author’s peers before publication to ensure high quality
||Journals usually have a narrow subject focus, and articles often include original research, reviews, or essays
||Used to inform, update, or introduce a topic to a general reader
||Illustrations often consist of charts or graphs
||Numerous colorful illustrations and/or photographs are usually present
||Articles use jargon of the discipline
||Language is geared to general population; no special knowledge is required
||American Journal of Botany, The Academy of Management Journal, Social Research
||Runner's World, Ebony, Time
Is this Journal or Article Peer-Reviewed?
If you have a journal or article and you need to check if it is peer reviewed, use the Ulrich's Periodical Directory database.
- Enter the name of the journal that the article was published in the search bar.
- Look for the referee jersey icon or the line that says "Refereed: Yes."
- The term refereed is just another way of saying peer reviewed, so if you see either or both of those things, your journal is peer reviewed.
- If you don't see the icon or if the description of the journal says "Refereed: No," that journal is not peer reviewed.