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Computer Science: Citation

Computer Science Subject Guide

Parts of a Citation

Image shows parts of a citation highlighted in different colors (author, article, etc), then it shows 2 sample citations with the corresponding parts highlighted in that color.

Above you see an image showing samples of ACM and IEEE citation.

Here are some observations:

  1. Citations are numbered by the order they appear in your paper.
    • Not the author's last name.
  2. Authors always come first in a citation.
    • Note that in IEEE you abbreviate author given names, while in ACM you spell them out. 
    • Also note that both conventions use given (first) name then surname (last name). 
  3. Article/paper titles are usually in quotes, but not in ACM.
  4. Source titles are usually in italics
  5. Include as many details available - year, volume, issue, page numbers, etc. 
    • Purpose is to make it as EASY as possible to find the article.
  6. Include a DOI if available. If not, include a PERMALINK or a Publisher URL.
    • DOIs are permanent and registered as a standard, so they're first option. 
    • Permalinks are the next best thing.
    • A URL is the last option.

Look for a library guide on your citation style for a quick review, but always go to the source to make sure. Especially when publishing in a journal, there are many variations journal to journal so you must check the journal's specific requirements.

IEEE Reference Examples

IEEE Citation Style (2016 ed.)

In the body of your paper, an in-text citation is simply the reference number in brackets: [#] = in-text citation

Example of use: In Pollan's paper on food [2], they note...

In your References list, the references are numbered in order they appear in the paper: [#] followed by full citation information

Example: [2] M. Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York, NY, USA: Penguin, 2006

 


 

Source Type Generic Example with Rules Actual Example

BOOKS

Print Book

  • Always include abbreviated state and country of publication.

 

Book (print)

One author

[#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

[1] M. Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York, NY, USA: Penguin, 2006.

Book (print)

Two or more authors with edition number

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

[2] A. Strindberg and M. Wärn, Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance, 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011.

Book Chapter

 

Book Chapter (in edited book)

One author, two editors

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, B. B. Editor and C. C. Editor, Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, year, pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

[1] P. Haynes, “Al-Qaeda, oil dependence, and U.S. foreign policy,” in Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, D. Moran and J. A. Russell, Eds. New York, NY, USA: Routledge, 2009, pp. 62–74.

Electronic Book

  • When citing a direct quotation from an electronic book without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. The citation might include a chapter number, section heading, or paragraph number within the section, e.g., [3, chap. 8, "On the frontier"].
 

Electronic Book

With URL

[#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] J. Crabtree and A. Chaplin, Bolivia: Processes of Change. London, England: Zed Books, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ebook-nps/detail.action?docID=1183073

Electronic Book

With book provider

[#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. [Online]. Book Provider.

[2] A. Krishnan, War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2008. [Online]. Kindle edition.

CONFERENCE PAPER / PROCEEDINGS
  Conference Proceedings (online)

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, C. C. Author, D. D. Author, and E. E. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” in Abbreviated Name of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, (location is optional), year published. [Online.] doi: or Available: URL

[1] S. Herculano-Houzel, C. E. Collins, P. Wong, J. H. Kass, and R. Lent, “The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex,” in Proc. of the Natl. Acad. of Sci. of the USA, 2008. [Online]. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805417105

Conference Proceedings (print)

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, and C. C. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Abbreviated Name of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, (location is optional), year, pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

[2] I. Katz, K. Gabayan, and H. Aghajan, “A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras,” in Adv. Conc. for Intell. Vis. Sys.: 9th Intl. Conf., 2007, pp. 133–203.

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, “Title of paper in sentence case,” presented at Abbreviated Name of Conference, Location of Conference, Month and day, year.

[3] K. Kirby and J. Stratton, “Van Allen probes: Successful launch campaign and early operations exploring earth’s radiation belts,” presented at the IEEE Aerosp. Conf., Big Sky, MT, USA, Mar. 2, 2013.

FACT SHEET
  Fact Sheet

[#] Department or Company, Title of fact sheet in sentence case and italics, document identification number, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] Texas Instruments, LM555 timer, SNAS548D, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/lm555.pdf

JOURNAL ARTICLE

 

Journal Article (online)

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

DOI preferred

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and year published. [Online]. doi:

[1] G. Sanico and M. Kakinaka, “Terrorism and deterrence policy with transnational support,” Def. & Peace Econ., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 153–167, Apr. 2008. [Online]. doi:10.1080/10242690701505419

Journal Article (online)

From a subscription database

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and year published. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[2] W. W. Newmann, “Reorganizing for national security and homeland security,” Pub. Admin. Rev., vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 126–137, Sep. 2002. [Online]. Available: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1540-6210.62.s1.22/abstract

Journal Article (online)

From an online journal

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and year published. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[3] N. Catrantzos, “No dark corners: A different answer to insider threats,” Homeland Sec. Aff., vol. 6, no. 2, May 2010. [Online]. Available: https://www.hsaj.org/articles/83

 

Journal Article (print)

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and day published, year.

[4] W. Q. Wang and H. Shao, “High altitude platform multichannel SAR for wide-area and staring imaging,” Aerosp. and Electron. Syst., vol. 29, no. 25, pp. 12–17, Mar. 26, 2014.

LEGAL
 

Legislative Document

[#] Legislative body. xxx Congress, Session. (year, Abbreviated Month and day). Number of Bill or Resolution, Title of document in Title Case and Italics. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] U.S. House. 102nd Congress, 1st Session. (1991, Jan. 11). H. Con. Res. 1, Sense of the Congress on Approval of Military Action. [Online]. Available: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c102:H.CON.RES.1.IH

Public Law 

Published in the U.S. Statutes at Large

 

[#] Title of Act in Title Case, Public Law number, Stat. section. Year published. doi: or [Online]. Available: URL

[2] Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101–336 § 2, 104 Stat. 328. 1991. [Online]. Available: http://library.clerk.house.gov/reference-files/PPL_101_336_
AmericansWithDisabilities.pdf

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Code

[#] Title of Act in Title Case, U.S.C. section xxx. Year published. 

[3] Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. § 12101. 1991.

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE
 

Newspaper Article (online)

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Month and day, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] L. Linguine, “Animal fat shampoos for achieving angel hair,” Knife and Spork Semi-Weekly, Jul. 15, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.chickenyodeling.com/dfjgp98y4t34_pherg899h.html/

Newspaper Article (print)

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Month and day, year.

[2] J. Stulberg, “The art of creating crossword puzzles,” The New York Times, Jul. 15, 2016.

REPORTS

  • An official report is freestanding and should have publisher and/or copyright information. If it is not freestanding, then format it as a webpage.
Technical Report

 

Technical Report (online)

With author

[#] A. A. Author. “Title of technical report in sentence case,” Abbrev. Name of Company, Place of Publication, Rep. xxxxxxx, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] S. V. Effendi and X. Vilhjálmsson. “The absorption rate of potatoes in salmonella,” Vet. Stud., Madison, WI, USA, Rep. 17-59, 2009. [Online]. Available: https://vetstud/donteatthosefries.html

Technical Report (online)

With agency as publisher

[#] Agency Name, “Title of technical report in sentence case,” Place of Publication, Rep. xxxxxxx, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[2] National Toxicology Program, “Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (CASRN 15625-89-5) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice (Topical Application Studies),” Washington, DC, USA, Rep. TR-576, 2012. [Online]. Available: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/longterm/reports/longterm/tr500580
?/listedreports/tr576/index.html

STANDARD
  Standard [#] Title of Standard in Title Case and Italics, Standard Number, date. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL [1] Letter Symbols for Quantities, ANSI Standard Y10.5, 1968. [Online]. Available: http://standards.globalspec.com/std/1713423/asme-ansi-y10-5
UNPUBLISHED / INFORMALLY PUBLISHED WORKS
  Unpublished Work Accepted for Publication

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” unpublished.

[1] R. Briscoe, “Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception,” unpublished.

WEBSITE / WEBPAGE
  • Title of website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
     
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, The New York Times, not Reuters or CNN.
 

Webpage

Author and publication date given

[#] A. A. Author, “Title, section, or page name in sentence case” Name of Website in Title Case, full date of publication or modification. [Online]. Available: URL

[1] R. Roth, “75 years ago, the Doolittle Raid changed history,” CNN, April 18, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html

Webpage

No author given

Organization as author

[#] “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” Name of Website in Title Case, full date of publication or modification. [Online]. Available: URL

[2] “Forging papers to sell fake art,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, April 6, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.fbi.gov/news/
stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art

Webpage

No author or date given

[#] “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” Name of Website in Title Case. Accessed date. [Online]. Available: URL

[3] “About the Department of Defense (DoD),” Department of Defense. Accessed April 18, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.defense.gov/About/

Webpage

Jane's example

[#] “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” Jane’s by IHS Markit, Full date of publication or modification. [Online]. Available: URL

[4] “Mali: Executive summary,” Jane’s by IHS Markit, May 31, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://janes.ihs.com.libproxy.nps.edu/NorthAfrica/Display/1303746

WIKIPEDIA

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
  Wikipedia

[#] “Title of entry in sentence caseWikipedia in Italics. Accessed date. [Online]. Available: URL

[1] “Psychology,” Wikipedia. Accessed May 17, 2011. [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology

WORKING PAPER / OCCASIONAL PAPER
  Working Paper / Occasional Paper [#] A. A. Author, “Title of working paper in sentence case,” working paper, Abbreviated Institution or Company, Place of Publication, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL  [1] U. Q. Sushi, "Three-handed Fibonacci model for optimizing surface-to-volume ratio of temaki in Hilbert space," working paper, Donburi Inst. of Int. Gastron., Pierre, SD, USA, 2021. [Online]. Available: http://www.wallcrust.com/403t3-9j/340txf%oii%/gonzoponzu.html

Adapted from and with thanks to NPS Dudley Knox Library at https://library.nps.edu. See their more thorough IEEE guide for questions not answered here: https://libguides.nps.edu/citation/ieee, or the IEEE style manual at http://journals.ieeeauthorcenter.ieee.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/7/IEEE-Reference-Guide_081920.pdf 

* Title Case means each word in a title starts with an uppercase letter.

* Sentence case means only the first word of a sentence starts with an uppercase letter (save for proper nouns of course).