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Computer Science

Computer Science Subject Guide


The Naval Postgraduate School has done a great job providing citation examples for all types of content. 

Or you can view the entire IEEE Reference Guide from IEEE Periodicals.

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Parts of a Citation

Image shows parts of a citation highlighted in different colors (author, article, etc), then it shows 2 sample citations with the corresponding parts highlighted in that color.

Above you see an image showing samples of ACM and IEEE citation.

Here are some observations:

  1. Citations are numbered by the order they appear in your paper.
    • Not the author's last name.
  2. Authors always come first in a citation.
    • Note that in IEEE you abbreviate author given names, while in ACM you spell them out. 
    • Also note that both conventions use given (first) name then surname (last name). 
  3. Article/paper titles are usually in quotes, but not in ACM.
  4. Source titles are usually in italics
  5. Include as many details available - year, volume, issue, page numbers, etc. 
    • Purpose is to make it as EASY as possible to find the article.
  6. Include a DOI if available. If not, include a PERMALINK or a Publisher URL.
    • DOIs are permanent and registered as a standard, so they're first option. 
    • Permalinks are the next best thing.
    • A URL is the last option.

Look for a library guide on your citation style for a quick review, but always go to the source to make sure. Especially when publishing in a journal, there are many variations journal to journal so you must check the journal's specific requirements.